Creative designers who design consumer products are beginning to appreciate the importance of evoking emotions to capture viewers’ attention and create satisfying experience. According to the ISPO news, 50% of every buying decision is driven by emotion. Although Norman’s approach to user centered design was focused in usability, he tried then to figure out, from a scientific perspective, what makes something a good or bad design. Previously he didn’t take emotions into account, only usability and functions from a logical, dispassionate way.
“Today’s consumer is hungry for something much deeper than a viral video. They’re looking for authentic connection. In this emerging Emotion Economy, brands must build products and services that address people’s unspoken feelings, wishes, and needs. And business as usual won’t cut it. To succeed, companies must connect at an emotional level with their customers.” (Goto, K., 2015)
Emotional design, represents a change of his viewpoint about how people relate with products. He states that there are different emotional layers to consider, beyond the logical perspective of usability (Norman, 2004). In his opinion, emotions and cognition are thoroughly intertwined. So, the question arose: Can beauty and usability go together?
“pleasing things work better, are easier to learn, and produce a more harmonious result.” (Norman, 2002)
Dunne and Raby found that: Responsible Design encompasses what is largely understood as humanitarian notion of service. Here the designer works to provide a useful, useable, and desirable product to those who are largely ignored by the market.
One Product, Fits all ?
Norman asserts that no product will satisfy everyone
Attractive = Conscious both are equally important and extremely related.
researches showed that when people are relaxed and happy, they become more creative and more imaginative in problem solving situations.
Attractive things work better because they make people feel good, thus people are more tolerant of minor difficulties and they think more creatively. Plus, they are willing to work harder to find the solution to what they are trying to do.
Norman’s Three levels of Design (2004):
Norman’s studies of emotions suggest that there are 3 level of the cognitive and emotional system for humans: Visceral, Behavioral and Reflective.
Each of the 3 levels of design (Visceral, behavioral and reflective) play its part in shaping the experience of use.
“Each is as important as the other, but each requires a different approach by the designers” (2004 p65)
Behavioral and reflective level are directly affected by culture.
Behavioral is about function, performance and usability, whilst reflective is about interpretation, understanding and reasoning.
The question is how to combine these 3 levels in one product. There is no clear answer to that question but it should be take into consideration that no product will never satisfy everyone.
Products must be attractive and pleasurable but also effective, understandable and appropriately priced. Products must strive for balance among the 3 levels.
Behavioral: When designing for the behavioral level, the hardest is to understand the unarticulated needs of the user, because they don’t know what they need. Observation is the appropriate type of research for this situation, instead of focus groups, questionnaires or surveys which rely too much on the user opinion.
Reflective: Beauty comes from conscious, it looks below the surface.
Paul Ekman’s 7 universal Emotions: (Weinschenk , 2011, p:164)
In Weinschenk’s book “100 things every designer needs to know about people” , he considered how emotions are important in our everyday life, and he was talking about the different between emotions, moods and attitudes.
· Emotions expressed physically, often lead to an action.
· Mood last longer perhaps a day or two
· Attitudes have a more cognitive and conscious
On the other hand, Jordan, (2000) asserts that products might affect person’s mode using a product might let you feel of self-confident such as wearing a new dress.
Emotional Benefits are those pertaining to how a product affects a person’s mood. Using a product might be, for example, exciting, interesting, fun, satisfying or confidence enhancing. A computer game, for example, might be exciting and fun to use , whilst a stylish new dress may give the wearer a feeling of self-confidence.” (Jordan, 2000)
(Useful, Usable, and Desirable )
Requirements for fulfilling emotional needs:
The Hug salt and pepper shakers designed by Alberto Mantilla
These are two shakers differ only in color The shakers, with their stubby arms, nest together appearing to hug each other.
The bold use of black and white suggests that we are all brothers and sisters on this planet and we need to treat each other with kindness, compassion and respect.
(To understand the primary intention of the designer, which cannot always be read from the objects)
Magic chair stands despite cut-off legs Designed by Peter Bristol
It stands strong, so you could sit on it, and wonder does a chair without legs manage to be useful.
Emotional design is about directing the user’s attention to the right thing, at the right time.
In Seattle Children’s Hospital, a large whale sculpture helps direct children’s attention away from the environment of the hospital.
(Creation of experiences that become stories and memories)
McDonald’s uses a multisensory approach to make potential customers familiar with their products. Colorful commercial advertising, busy store locations, the special scent and taste of the food, the ubiquitous brand identity, and the toys all combine to create positive memories for children.
Using flattery/compliments to influence purchase decisions.
Even a compliment from an inanimate object is more affective than no compliment at all.
“We make decisions based on how we feel” (Grop, T. 2012)
Teapot, Designed by Christopher Dresser For James Dixon and Sons (1880):
In my opinion this teapot is not suitable for personal use, I might buy it if I have the interest in collecting unusual products.
“These teapots are rare survivals of the radical work he produced at the very peak of his powers.
Dresser was an industrial designer before the profession had been invented, a man who found new ways of designing for production that few of his contemporaries could have imagined. He grasped both the properties of materials and the processes of production and adapted his designs and aesthetics to them brilliantly.” Victoria and Albert Museum
Personal/ cultural histories:
(Connect people to objects through recognition & memory)
To understand how recognition is been affected by personal histories and expectations. I would like to share a personal experience with you. One day my little brother needed to go to the toilet and was confused from those universal letters. He went to open the door that holds the letter “F” because he thought that it means “Father” and “M” means “Mother”, due to his shallow knowledge on English. This example explains that designers should have in consideration the different cultural backgrounds and must have in mind that not every one knows what “Male” and “Female” stands for.
Clay water pot:
Using a clay pot for water is not just a traditional alternative to the steel, glass and plastic containers, but it’s a healthy alternative as well.
I was born at the late 80’s, and during my childhood especially those memories that were related with my grandmother’s house, such as watching “Horouf” program, and reading “Majid” magazine, where my uncle used to bought it for me every Wednesday while he come back from work. Also my grandmother used to have different types of candies in her secret closet inside the kitchen, for example Chiclets gum. On the other hand, playing with the Nintendo, especially Mario is a global nostalgia for different cultures all over the world, and having it returned back to be played using your iPhone, is great.
Products I am attached to:
Figure 15: Some of the products that I love.
At the left is a traditional Mibkhar where we use it every Friday morning with Oud before going to pray, to stir our clothes and hairs. Bringing this tradition and culture to the U.K. deteriorate the affect of having a homesick and that smell remind me back with the cosy family gathering every Friday morning.
Next to it is my Michael Kors cross bag where it was a gift from my husband, which gave it an extra value and makes me attached to it more.
At the right side is a necklace from Tiffany & co was a gift as well from my husband when we were engaged. Wearing it return me back to those lovely days.
A&V (Victoria and Albert Museum) Power of making exhibition:
The world’s leading museum of art and design
rediscovered value of the process of making and of the handmade product in our society.
to explore the cultural, historical and physical consequences of the objects in our world and the people who made them.
GARETH NEAL urban picnic, 2010:
(Ghosts of the past meet contemporary constructions)
He embedded the value of traditional furniture craftsmanship with a contemporary twist using a CNC router.
Digital Fabrication Meets Ancient Japanese Tradition
Ceramic speakers (2010) limited-edition audio speakers, ceramic substrate decorated with the kutani-ware technique.
The cross over between cutting edge digital fabrication technologies and ancient handcraft traditions, to create exquisite new experience of artisanship.
“Tokyo studio Nendo have collaborated with a traditional Japanese potter to create a flat, square loudspeaker made of 1mm thick ceramic decorated with intricate patterns.
The speaker combines high-tech industrial ceramics and traditional craftsmanship.” (Warmann, 2010)
The renaissance of the local shoemaker ( Brown and Mitchell, 2003,p. 86):
- offering personal service over the long term
- Local, no mass produced. You can get to know and enjoy their work
- The renaissance of the local shoemaker:
- Shoes decorated by indigenous people from around the world, from the Camper Shoe Company in Majorca
- Shoes and Indigenous Art reflects our attempt to offer indigenous peoples the only thing we know how to make, shoes, and to give them character with the living imprint of these peoples’ culture and artistic expression, in the hope that what we see today, lines, signs, colours, means much more than this; that they hold the essential everyday lessons of these rich, living and indispensible cultures. Cultures in danger of disappearance, and so putting at stake our passport to the future. Because we cannot imagine a worthwhile future if we cannot succeed in keeping alive, as they do, the concepts of respect, balance and contact with the earth.
Playing with tradition:
Designed by: Richard Hutton
Richard Hutton explores the use of traditional craft with his ‘Playing with Tradition’ rugs. Each rug is hand knotted, however at a specially chosen point the old-style pattern is stretched out, almost suggesting a digital malfunction.
“The idea behind the carpet was to build a bridge between the old and the new, east meets west. From this starting point, I looked at various ways to give a reinterpretation.” – Richard Hutton
Hickory Dickory Clock, Designed by Jacob Cress:
Figure 22: Hickory Dickory Clock, Designed by Jacob Cress
- Hickory Dickory Clock
- The mouse ran up the clock
- The clock struck one –
- The other got away.
Oops ! Designed by Jacob Cress:
Figure 23: Oops chair designed by Jacob Cress
“His view of the world and the objects in it provides an interesting approach to his high quality hand-crafted furniture, clocks and boxes.”
Aljoud lootah reinterprets ancient weaving craft with misnad & uwairyan carpets:
forming a contemporary interpretation of an ancient form of art, emirati designer aljoud lootah adapts history and tradition to modern needs in the making of two handwoven carpets. ‘misnad’ and ‘uwairyan’ are informed by the practice of ‘alsadu’, an indigenous style of weaving characterized colorful motifs and narrow bands of geometric patterning.
Sustainability of craftsmanship:
- Norman, D. (2004) Emotional Design: Why we love (or hate) every day things. New York: Basic Books.
- Designing pleasurable products (Patric Jordan)
- Digital Handmade (Lucy Johston)
- The beauty of craft (Brown & Mitchel)
- “100 things every designer needs to know about people” (Weinchenk)
- Gorp, Trevor van;Adams, Edie. (2012). Design for Emotion. Morgan Kaufmann. Retrieved 23 April 2017, from <http://www.myilibrary.com?ID=361144>
- Donald Norman’s website: http://www.jnd.org/dn.mss/emotion_design_at.html
- Design for Emotions (2012) http://designforemotion.com/
- Figure 1: https://www.pinterest.com/idahusjord/emotional-design/
- Figure 2: http://www.dunneandraby.co.uk/content/projects/512/0
- Figure 3: Personal image
- Figure 4: https://dellamcgee.com/2015/05/08/what-is-joy/
- Figure 5: https://alikathe.com/2012/01/22/notes-on-donald-normans-book-emotional-design-why-we-love-or-hate-everyday-things/2
- Figure 6: http://www.core77.com/posts/12232/the-4-fields-of-industrial-design-no-not-furniture-trans-consumer-electronics-toys-by-bruce-m-tharp-and-stephanie-m-tharp-12232
- Figure 7: http://randommization.com/2011/05/07/magic-chair-stands-despite-cut-off-legs/
- Figure 8: http://designforemotion.com/2012/09/4-emotion-commands-attention-and-affects-memory/
- Figure 9: http://logos-download.com/1120-mcdonalds-logo-download.html
- Figure 10: https://www.slideshare.net/trevor.vangorp/why-design-for-emotion
- Figure 11: http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/t/christopher-dresser-teapots/
- Figure 12: Personal Image
- Figure 13: http://www.stylecraze.com/articles/health-benefits-of-using-clay-water-pot/
- Figure 14: http://forum.panet.co.il/showthread.php?t=50678
- Figure 15: https://www.pinterest.com/explore/michael-kors-crossbody-bag/
- Figure 16: https://www.vam.ac.uk/
- Figure 17: https://www.vam.ac.uk/
- Figure 18: http://garethneal.co.uk/power-of-making-exhibition#&panel1-4
- Figure 19: https://www.dezeen.com/2010/11/23/ceramic-speaker-by-nendo/
- Figure 20: https://www.acvic.org/en/exhibition-projects/1205-itinerancia-de-lexposicio-qzona-intermedia-disseny-art-i-societatq
- Figure 21: https://www.pinterest.com/caterinelaurent/droog-design-x-jurgen-bey/
- Figure 22: https://www.jakecress.com/
- Figure 23: https://www.jakecress.com/
- Figure 24: http://marhaba.qa/sadu-weaving-in-qatar/
- Figure 25: http://www.designboom.com/design/aljoud-lootah-misnad-uwairyan-carpets-weaving-warehouse421-abu-dhabi-11-21-2015/
- Figure 26: http://www.alhejal.net/vb/showthread.php?t=13435http://lirak.free.fr/categorie.php?categorie=irakies